Transportation planning as a discipline is closely related to land-use management and planning. Though it stands on its own, it has now also become part of urban and land-use planning. Transportation cannot exist as an isolated concept and can only function in relation to other planning disciplines. Urban design and living, however, are intertwined with transportation. Goods must be transported from ports to cities in the interior of the country, products must be distributed in the most efficient way, and people must get to their places of employment using the most efficient and least-congested roads.
Good accessibility to various areas of the urban environment and the towns, cities, and rural areas surrounding it is very important. Roads must be planned to ensure good access from people’s homes to their work, recreational facilities, education, and hospitals. Good accessibility reduces the time people spend commuting to work and as such, mobility is improved. With the growing trend to develop sustainable cities, transportation planning must include infrastructure planning for cyclists, pedestrians, and rapid-transit public transport to reduce congestion, reduce road accidents, and minimise the impact of human activity on the environment. People with disabilities, those without driving licences, and senior citizens must be considered to ensure that they enjoy the best possible access to and can participate in as many as possible economic activities.
The increased awareness of healthy living and the benefits of walking necessitated a new approach to urban transportation planning. It must be possible for people to walk in safety, enjoy their physical activities, and experience as little air pollution as possible while doing so. Transportation planning entails the creation of policies and goals, in addition to designs for the movement of goods and people between points in the future, whether this happens in the urban environment, rural district, or between urban areas. It cannot be successful if public input is not considered. Stakeholder input is needed too, including that of investors, government agencies, public entities, and communities. It is essential to follow a holistic approach with future needs in mind.
Various alternatives must be considered and it is imperative to recognise the impact of infrastructure on the environment, but also the benefits it brings in terms of economic development, accessibility, improvement in people’s quality of life, and sustainability. Transportation planning historically followed a rational approach that entailed identifying goals and problems and considering alternatives. Today, many approaches are followed, some in combination, such as incremental planning, transit-focused development, and collaborative design and planning. The modern planner follows a multidisciplinary methodology because of the importance of sustainable developments in modern society. The role of the planner is no longer limited to technical design; it now also includes the advancement of sustainable development by following integrated transportation approaches.
The long-term goal is to reduce the environmental impact of traffic and to reduce congestion while promoting economic development. In order to do so, the number of vehicles on the road must be reduced. As such, public-transport lanes must be incorporated in the design of urban road infrastructure. To garner support, economic motivations may be offered to encourage the use of alternative transport modes to reduce traffic congestion. Quantitative data determines the best use of resources in the current and future transportation infrastructure. The necessary data is collected and then technically analysed. Models that are used for the estimation of traffic changes in future are created and analysed. Sub-modelling may follow it for particular modes of transport. Traffic flow can then be analysed based on all the modes of transport. The planner considers the time it takes to travel a particular section, as well as its business infrastructure, location of residences, and more.
Programmes are developed, implemented, monitored, and evaluated. However, political processes also influence the eventual plans of the proposed infrastructure. To this end, the information is submitted to policymakers for approval as well. At the end of the day, the government and municipal decision makers must approve and implement the plans. In the end, engineers, architects, environmental specialists, surveyors, and other professionals are all involved in the realisation of the designs.
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